.NET: String Format Characters

C or c: currency based on local cultural symbol, $1234.56
D or d: decimal, optional number (i.e. {0:D8}) used to pad value, 012345678
E or e: exponential notation, 1.234E+05
F or f: fixed point, 0:F3 1234.567
G or g: general, used to format to fixed or exponential
N or n: numerical format (with commas), 1,234.00
X or x: hexadecimal, 0:X 123F, 0:x 123f

You can use this with string.Format, like below:

.NET: csc.exe, cordbg.exe

csc.exe /target:winexe – prevents a console window from appearing in the background

cordbg.exe assemblyloads .pdb file

b: set or display breakpoints
del: remove one or more breakpoints
g: continue debugging
p: print all loaded variables
o: step out of the current function
si: step into the next line
so: step over the next line
ex: exit the debugger


BCL: “base class libraries”, encapsulate primitives such as threads, graphical rendering, file input/output, data access, winforms, security, xml/soap, webforms.

CLR includes CTS and CLS:


JIT: “just in time” compiler that translates IL (intermediate language) into native machine code at runtime. Also known as ‘Jitter’, it will cache already compiled machine code in memory.

CLR: “common language runtime”, primary role is to locate, load, and manage .NET types on your behalf. Also takes care of memory management and performs security checks.

CTS: “common type system”, describes all possible data types and programming constructs supported by the runtime, specifies how they can interact with each other, details how they are represented in the .NET metadata format.

CLS: “common language specification”, subset of common types and programming constructs that all .NET programming languages can agree on.